Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE) was founded in 1949. They moved to Wilmette, Illinois in 1951. SIPRe's purpose was to conduct basic and applied research in snow, ice and frozen ground. In 1953 they merged with the Frost Effects Laboratory and Permafrost Division of the St. Paul District to establish ACFEL (the Arctic Construction and Frost Effects Laboratory) in Boston. In 1961, they became Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.